Ask an Engineer - CFD

In this week's Ask an Engineer segment, we'll be continuing the discussion of the technology of Formula SAE by delving into CFD, or Computational Fluid Dynamics.

CFD is software that simulates fluid dynamics - namely, the motion of fluids like liquids or gases.  This process is done through utilizing numerical analysis and algorithms in many different scenarios, some of which can be incredibly complex and involve variables like different fluids, different densities (such as air, water, or oil), different temperatures in fluids that can be heated, and speeds exceeding the speed of sound.  Because of the complex numerical analysis required by fluid dynamics, CFD programs like ANSYS are used for a much faster computation when many different factors are involved.  

When it comes to designing the aerodynamics of a Formula SAE car, CFD is integral.  Alto Ono, a member of Longhorn Racing's aerodynamics subteam, explains that designing an aero kit "is an iterative process by nature.  There aren't solvable equations that would tell us exactly what shape the car should be."  For the automotive industry, this has traditionally meant creating scale models of different designs and running wind tunnel testing on them to see how each performed.  This, however, is a costly endeavor both in terms of time and money.

The introduction of CFD in the automotive industry has meant that professionals are able to create tens to thousands of CAD designs for their products, all of which can be run through CFD software simulating different road, or in the world of motorsport, race conditions in order to optimize designs.  A few of the most effective designs are then chosen to be run through physical wind tunnel testing as a way to ensure the product works just as efficiently in real life.  While physical testing is the only way to truly ensure a product will produce the results they want, CFD has allowed engineers to focus their tests on the models that are the most likely to work.

Things are different for Longhorn Racing, though.  "Because our team does not have regular access to a design tunnel that we can do physical testing in, we rely heavily on creating designs based on data collected from CFD simulations," Ono explains.  Because of this, the team creates a few aerodynamics package designs that include changes in different variables that are believed to affect the relationship between the car and the airflow around it.  They then can run CFD simulations that show the visual flow paths of air around the car as well as producing hard numbers about downforce and drag.  "Our objective is to minimize drag and increase downforce," Ono says.  "We experiment over and over with new designs."

A hugely beneficial tool for the team has been ANSYS, which allows calculations to be conducted alongside CFD flow simulations, allowing the aerodynamics subteam to develop a package with both visual and numerical results from their simulations.  In addition, The Texas Advanced Computing Center located on the J.J. Pickle Research Campus of UT Austin has very generously donated computation time on Stampede, the seventh fastest supercomputer in the world, to the Longhorn Racing team.

Ono is thankful for the technology and the benefits it provides the team.  "In partnering with ANSYS, we were able to get High Performance Cluster editions of ANSYS Fluent running in parallel and were able to greatly cut down our simulation time from three full days to under an hour.  This helps our aerodynamics team run a multitude of designs and make small changes during our iterations to fine tune our methods."  The process enables them to make multiple changes to their package during a single year's design process.  Without CFD technology or ANSYS software, those design changes would have to come on a year-to-year basis, where testing comes from actually building the aerodynamics package and using it on the car.

Computational fluid dynamics is key in both the automotive industry and within Longhorn Racing.  By simulating fluid flows - in this case, air - it allows the aerodynamics subteam to create several different iterations of a design in order to find which one provide the least drag and most downforce.  Because the team doesn't have constant access to a wind tunnel, CFD and software like ANSYS are the most time- and cost-effective ways to develop an aero package.

Weekend Roundup - 11/19/16

This weekend, Longhorn Racing got right down to work knowing that Thanksgiving break is coming up and there won't be an official workday on Saturday.  The engine team was working on the wiring harness once again, putting the finishing touches on organizing the wires.  Then, they laid out the harness in the frame to make sure everything would fit in place.  In addition, they've started mocking up the swirl pot design.

While the machine shop was occupied with certifications in the morning, the afternoon saw several team members back at work.  Taking advantage of the CNC machines saw a significant development in the completion of 3 of the 4 bell cranks that were prepped last weekend.

Finally, the maintenance and aero subteams were hard at work in the garage.  After an issue with the re-welding of the engine mounts in the 2015 car, the maintenance team was able to fit the engine back into the frame.  The aero team continued work on the rear wing, this weekend focusing on removing the foam from the carbon fiber mold, taking care not to damage any of the carbon fiber.

The team was also lucky enough to stop for a moment and take a longer Thanksgiving-style lunch break.  One of our engine leads, Ron, took the time to prepare a feast for everyone, including three deep fried turkeys, ten pies, and enough side dishes to feed a small army.  The whole team is incredibly thankful to him and his dedication, and it was a great way to celebrate what has been a successful first semester so far!

This Weekend in Motorsports

Bahrain hosted the finale of the 2016 World Endurance Championship season and subsequently the final season for the Audi Sport Team Joest team as well as veteran Mark Webber.  The season could not have ended on a more picture perfect note.  Both Audi cars secured the top two places on the podium with the #8 Audi of Loic Duval, Lucas di Grassi, and Oliver Jarvis claiming the win.  The Porsche team secured the manufacturer's championship, allowing Mark Webber to celebrate his final race on the podium as well. 

 

Ask an Engineer - CAD

Starting this week, we would like to introduce a new segment called Ask an Engineer!  Each month, we will select an overall theme regarding engineering and the Formula SAE competition.  Then, we will explore different components of that theme each week to give readers an in-depth look into the world of UT SAE.  Featuring insight from the engineers of UT SAE's very own design teams, Longhorn Racing IC And EV, we hope to offer a richer understanding of what it means to walk the line between being a student and being an aspiring engineer.  

For the first month, we'll be delving into a hugely important topic for the design teams: the software used in the design process of a Formula SAE car.  This week, our focus is on discussing CAD software, including Solidworks, the specific program used by our design teams.

CAD, or Computer Aided Design, is a software package that people from all walks of life – from engineers to architects to artists – use to design products.  Its popularity among such a wide variety of professions is a result of CAD's ability to create precise models and technical drawings on a level that would have been unthinkable in the age before computers.  CAD software is a huge step up from pen-to-paper drafting and has been lauded for its huge advances in productivity and output by eliminating the need to erase by hand in order to make changes and by introducing a huge range of new tools that can only exist on a computer.  Due to this, the engineering workforce has benefitted because CAD software offers a shortened design cycle and therefore more efficient product development.

Drawings in CAD can be 2D (or, vector-based models) or 3D (solid and surface models), and they enable users to design alternate models of an object without having to render the product in real life to see how it works.  Form and function can both be modeled within the programs and can then be corrected before the product is created, which eliminates the costly process of having to produce a product before seeing how it actually will function.  

In addition, CAD software enables for better communication.  It creates a standardized design process, allows for better documentation because users are able to save various iterations of their work, enables better legibility than hand drawn designs, produces easier adaptability to drawings themselves, and encourages better collaboration between several different people who are all working on the same project.

A specific example of CAD software is Solidworks, which is used by Longhorn Racing in the design of their Formula SAE cars.  Solidworks provides a 3D solid modeling package, which allows users to sketch ideas and experiment with different designs in order to develop full solid models in a simulated environment.  The program offers a full inclusive package that has simulation tools as well.

The Solidworks edition used by Longhorn Racing includes a wealth of helpful tools that enable us to create the best car we can in the most efficient way.  Some of these technologies include motion analysis for kinematic and dynamic simulation, including event-based studies; Computational Fluid Dynamics for fluid and thermal studies; Finite Element Analysis for structural, thermal, impact, and optimization studies; and a costing analysis tool that estimates manufacturing costs that adjust as you modify the design.  Several of these technologies will be discussed in more depth later this month in additional Ask an Engineer segments.

But how do these technologies affect the design process of Longhorn Racing?  Chief Design Engineer Andy Fortin offered his ideas of how he's seen Solidworks benefit the team over the years.  

What is the design process like when using Solidworks?

  • “It starts off with a conceptual understanding of what you're trying to accomplish.  Once you understand that, you create a very simple mechanism that does what it needs to do from a bare-bones perspective.  There's no refinement in the design at all; the part just does what it needs to do.  Once you've created a part that completes its function from a conceptual aspect, the iteration and real design work comes into play when you find out how you can take that object and optimize it from weight, cost, and time perspectives into something that completes the task in the best possible manner given the situation and the scope of the project.

How does Solidworks enable you to test out many different designs?

  • It allows us to check geometric tolerances – whether things will run into each other or not, as well as whether we have the correct interference fits for the bearings, conduct of finite elements, and some CFD which allows us to animate the experience loads that go through a part.  It helps us actually visualize how things work – it's a visualization tool that allows us to see the model in a 3D space.

How does the team collaborate to work together on a single car?

  • The first part of collaboration is having an understanding of how each subsystem interacts with each other – how each components works with the others in the car.  Once you understand that and the relative locations of parts in the car, the real collaboration begins when more specific details, sizings, and geometries will be implemented.  Using Cloud storage devices like Box helps share Solidworks files amongst the teammates in real time.  Having a full car model assembly running helps as well so as the components of the car are designed, you can see before the car comes to life the full geometry of the vehicle meet up with each subsystem.  Of course, actual physical talking collaboration goes on to make sure that the leads of each subteam keep all these things in mind as they design the car.

How do you go from a CAD model to building the actual car?

  • We create engineering drawings of many parts, and they show all the needed dimensions and tolerances in order to create a part for a specific application in the car.  One of the means of creating these parts are mills and lathes for 2D oriented parts.  More complex 3D parts use the CNC machine. Another example is jigging the frame.  We jig a lot of the critical components of the frame such as critical suspension points, running a tolerance of 0.1 inches in the points.  By connecting those points in the frame with tubes that we get laser cut, we get a strong geometric reference in order to connect all other pieces in the car.  The spacing of suspension points encompasses about 1/3 of the car.


CAD software significantly aid in making the lives of UT SAE's design teams easier and help students visualize the designs that they are creating.  By enabling better efficiency and more effective collaboration, CAD software affords both Longhorn Racing IC and EV the technology to make the best possible product for each design and build cycle.  Without it, the already-challenging task of creating a racecar as a student would be infinitely more difficult.

Weekend Roundup 11/12/16

The weekend started out on a high with the structural members of the 2017 frame having been all tacked in during the week!  It was a great feeling for everyone in Longhorn Racing, as last year the chassis subteam suffered setbacks that put them off schedule.  This year, however, things are progressing as planned.  On Saturday, members of the subteam were able to sand the rust from the tubes of the frame in anticipation of starting to fully weld structural elements and tabs.  They also began measuring the engine to calculate where on the frame, exactly, they'll need to weld the engine mounts.

 

The aero team continued work on the end plate test pieces to see how the new carbon fiber process would work.  The goal of the weekend is to complete all of the pieces and have them water jetted into their correct shape.  Meanwhile, they also started work on the second half of their test wing. The aero subteam is also testing a new process for the wings to create hollow wings this year to decrease the weight of the aero package while keeping the same rigidity.

 

In the machine shop, the water jet saw more action in the form of the radiator shroud, or a piece of aluminum that connects the radiator to the fan.  Once water jetted, it needed to be bent into shape by hand.  In addition, the lathes were filled with people manufacturing rod ends.  Finally, the team is preparing to take advantage of the CNC machines to manufacture components.

 

Just because things were busy for the 2017 car doesn't mean 2015 was being neglected.  This weekend, more work was being done to get 2015 back to running condition.  Of the changes being enacted on the car, one of them is a change in the position of the differential.  This means that the engine also needs to be moved.  Therefore, this weekend, new engine mounts were welded onto the frame to account for those changes.

 

 

This Weekend in Motorsport

As representatives from countries across the world gathered for the Climate Change Conference, the Formula E series took to the streets of Morocco for the Marrakech ePrix for the second race of the 2016-17 season.  Rookie Felix Rosenqvist claimed his first pole position for Mahindra Racing and led most of the race from the start despite suffering issues with his dashboard readings.  With a significant gap opened between him and the second place car that was not diminished during the mandatory pit stop, Rosenqvist looked set to win.  However, the rookie began to suffer energy depletion, allowing Renault e.dams driver Sebastien Buemi to overtake him for first place, even after earning a five place grid penalty at the start of the race.  The energy issues also allowed DS Virgin Racing's Sam Bird to secure second place, leaving Rosenqvist to content himself with the final step of the podium.

While the Formula 1 Brazilian Grand Prix started out with a familiar story - Lewis Hamilton and Nico Rosberg dominating the starting grid once again - the race turned out to be anything but usual.  A rain-drenched circuit saw the race delayed, start under a safety car, and suffer two red flags, it was a race of attrition for many, starting with Romain Grosjean on the formation lap.  Unfortunately, one of the victims was hometown hero Felipe Massa - his final Brazilian GP ended in a DNF; carrying a Brazilian flag down the pit lane, he was applauded by the members of every team who stopped their work mid-race.  Hamilton and Rosberg secured their first and second positions, which means the title will be decided at the season finale in Abu Dhabi.  Red Bull's Max Verstappen rounded out the podium in third position, working his way up from the bottom of the grid after a late rain-induced pit stop late in the race.

Weekend Roundup 11/05/16

This workday marked another productive weekend for Longhorn Racing.  With much of the basic frame completed last weekend, the chassis subteam entered the day optimistic that they would be able to add the last four tubes before starting on other structural elements and tabs.  Unfortunately, they ran into an obstacle when they realized that the back end of the frame was uneven and needed to be straightened out.  After analyzing the situation, it was discovered that the pickup point had been put in upside down.  Thankfully, it was an easy fix to make.

Various different subteams were utilizing the machine shop to get started on the manufacturing process.  The suspension subteam was one such team.  The process for making the A-arms for the 2017 car began this weekend.  In addition, several people were employed making various elements of the bell cranks.  Alongside them, the maintenance subteam made use of the plasma cutter to make the plates onto which the magnets for Hall effect sensors will be mounted.

In addition, the engine subteam has seen progress.  The engine intake was been printed, and sanded down in order to smooth out its surface.

Finally, the aero team continued utilizing the process for making end plates that they started last weekend.  Overall, it will take about twice as long to accomplish the end plates than in previous years, as each end plate requires two carbon fiber components be sandwiched together.  However, the time investment will pay off, as the end plates will be much more structurally sound than they were on the 2016 car, which was an area deemed for improvement.

This Weekend in Motorsport

The World Endurance Championship's penultimate round in Shanghai this weekend saw yet another win by the LMP1 Porsche #1 car driven by Mark Webber, Brendan Hartley, and Timo Bernhard.  Leading the race from pole position and finishing a minute ahead of the competition, their victory ensured that Porsche brought home the manufacturers title.  However, the drivers' title is still in contention heading into the final round; reliability issues within the Audi team has written them off as contenders, but second- and third-place finishes for both Toyota cars has given the #6 Toyota of Kamui Kobayashi, Mike Conway, and Stephane Sarrazin an outside shot at the championship leading into Bahrain.

Weekend Roundup 10/29/16

This weekend, Longhorn Racing was back in the garage for another productive workday.  One of the areas with the most significant development has been the frame.  The members of the subteam intend to have the main structural elements completed by November 1, at which point they will be able to turn their attention to adding mounts for the pedal assembly, engine, and more.  Last year, this process continued well into the second semester, and it has been a huge success to be so far along at this stage in the year.


The aero team was experimenting with a new manufacturing method for some of their composite components this weekend as they worked on the end plates for the wings. This involved adding a sandwich material in the middle of the layers of carbon. Any new technique requires trial and error before it's perfected, and although the team's initial experiment did not go entirely to plan, they were able to resolve the issue and proceed more smoothly on the next attempt.

Things were moving forward in the machine shop as well.  Several people were assigned to the task of making press fit bearings, as sixteen of them are needed for the car.  Additionally, one team member was assigned to machine another shifter for the car.

Finally, maintenance on the 2015 car has been underway.  This weekend, the subteam continued working on creating a data acquisition system.  In this case, it involved adding the shock potentiometer mounts to measure the displacement of the shocks.

This Weekend in Motorsports

The biggest talking point in motorsports this weekend has been the Formula 1 Mexico Grand Prix taking place at the Autódromo Hermano Rodríguez.  While a Mercedes 1-2 with polesitter Lewis Hamilton leading from the start means the gap in championship points between him and teammate Nico Rosberg has been cut down to 16 points, it was the battle for third that has sparked the most drama.  Red Bull's Max Verstappen locked up his brakes when defending from Sebastian Vettel on lap 68; after running wide, he held his position and was later given a five second time penalty.  Vettel took his place on the podium - only to be penalized himself for moving under braking while defending from Daniel Ricciardo earlier in the race.  While Ricciardo did not celebrate the third place on podium, he is the one taking home the trophy while the now-fifth-placed Vettel has been given two points on his license for potentially dangerous conduct. 

Formula 1 United States Grand Prix Roundup

Last weekend, the Formula 1 United States Grand Prix took place in Austin, Texas at the Circuit of the Americas.  As the track celebrated its fifth anniversary of hosting the race, Longhorn Racing celebrated the occasion in their own ways.

Longhorn Racing kicked off the weekend on Thursday evening with an event hosted by Red Bull Racing and Puma at the Austin Speed Shop.  Members of UT Austin's SAE International chapter were invited to enjoy a night of barbecue, live music, crazy karts, and appearances from Red Bull Racing drivers Daniel Ricciardo and Max Verstappen. Students competed on crazy carts to put down the fastest lap time for a chance to win a pair of tickets for the USGP. Verstappen and Ricciardo also joined the fun and went head-to-head to see who was faster around the crazy kart track.  After a mini race between the two drivers, they both joined the crowd to mingle with fans, sign autographs, and explore the Austin Speed Shop. The night ended on a high, as Daniel Ricciardo joined a few members of Longhorn Racing to check out the 2016 car.  He spent several minutes with the team, checking out the details and asking questions about design, manufacturing, and aerodynamics of the 2016 car.  It was an incredible experience and an incredible way to start the weekend!

As the Circuit of the Americas, the home of the Formula 1 USGP, is in Longhorn Racing’s backyard, many members of our team also attended the USGP. This year it was made possible by a generous donation of weekend tickets for our members by Circuit of the Americas.  Those who attended were able to experience three days of non-stop action from the Formula 1 series, with the Masters Historic Racing and Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup series keeping things lively in between F1 sessions.  In addition, there were autograph sessions with the F1 drivers, live music in the Grand Plaza during the day, and massive performances from renowned musicians Taylor Swift and Usher and the Roots after qualifying and the race.

The race itself took place on a sunny Sunday afternoon in front of a record-breaking crowd at COTA; 269,899 tickets were scanned at the gate that morning, a huge success after 2015's low attendance due to extreme weather conditions.  And if they came expecting a wealth of on-track excitement, they were in for a treat when they lights went out at 2pm to signal the start of the race.

Nico Rosberg and Lewis Hamilton of Mercedes have been locked in a championship battle all season, with the former entering the US GP weekend ahead in the championship but the latter qualifying on pole position.  Hamilton held his position going into Turn 1 on the first lap, while Rosberg lost second position to Red Bull's Daniel Ricciardo.  Contact between the Force India of Nico Hulkenberg and the Williams of Valtteri Bottas, resulting in a DNF for the former driver and a 16th place finish for Bottas.

A tire strategy gamble on Rosberg's part helped him reclaim his position; switching to the medium compound tires as opposed to the softs, Rosberg needed to pit only once, during the safety car brought out due to Verstappen's gearbox failure.  This brought him out ahead of Ricciardo, who had needed to stop twice.  From that point on, a Mercedes 1-2 looked to be guaranteed.

Pit lane trouble plagued the Ferrari team as well.  After becoming notorious for slow stops this season, the team accidentally sent driver Kimi Raikkonen out of the pits with the tire gun still attached and the wheel not completely fastened to the car.  He was forced to stop at the end of pit lane and retire the car.

As the US GP neared its end, Sainz and Massa were going head-to-head in a battle for fifth position when Fernando Alonso, on fresher tires, saw his opportunity to join in the mix.  He surged forward to overtake Massa, subsequently running the Williams driver off the road after a brief clash that then enabled him to overtake Sainz just before the checkered flag.  While it was rumored that Alonso would suffer a penalty for the move, no further action was taken, meaning he finished fifth, Sainz sixth, and Massa seventh.  Sainz's sixth place meant he matched the best finish of his Formula 1 career.

As had seemed the case for much of the race, the podium consisted of Lewis Hamilton winning his 50th race, teammate Nico Rosberg in second, and Daniel Ricciardo third.  As Formula 1 races in Mexico next weekend, it is expected that the championship battle will continue with Rosberg seeking to maintain his points lead as Hamilton fights to close the gap between them.

 

Overall, the United States Grand Prix was a success, both for Formula 1 and for Longhorn Racing.  Our team enjoyed a weekend of the most prestigious form of motorsport in the world, and is gearing up to prepare for our own race in the summer of 2017!

Photos from the Red Bull Racing/Puma event can be found at UT SAE International's Facebook page!  And for more details about Longhorn Racing, don't forget to keep track of us on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

Weekend Roundup - 10/15/16

After several weeks of gaining a basis of knowledge to implement in the garage, the new Longhorn Racing recruits joined the rest of the team in the garage for the first time this weekend.  They were split up based on their interest in subteams and spent most of the day shadowing their lead.  For many subteams, this meant spending a few hours giving instruction on the various components of that team as well as what their future projects would entail; after that, many were delegated tasks that they set to work to complete.

Educating new recruits didn't make for a slow workday, though; all of the subteams were able to balance that with productivity to make significant steps forward on the 2016 car.  One area of significant progress has been the chassis.  The main members of the front end of the frame was welded together over the weekend, which meant it was possible to move on to the mid-section of the car, the area from the front roll hoop to the main roll hoop.  The members of the team are optimistic that the mid-section should be simpler to complete, since the tubes for that portion were all laser cut and will not require members to tweak the lengths, as was the case for the front roll hoop.

Meanwhile, the engine team continued work on the wiring harness.  With most of the actual wiring harness itself complete, this weekend saw the team making the last few touches.  This included both heat shrinking the wires together as well as creating a box to hold the wire distribution in order to maintain organization. Engine team also worked to get the engine dynamometer back to working order so that they can start calibrating sensors and model the engine in its stock set-up. 

During the week, the aero team made the negative mold for the seat with fiberglass.  Therefore, they spent their Saturday preparing the mold and then completing a carbon fiber layup.


Finally, the maintenance subteam recruited several of the new members to continue work on the 2015 car.  This weekend involved taking the measurements of various components of the car to build brackets for sensors to install a data acquisition system.  The plan is to install wheel speed sensors, potentiometers, and accelerometers in order to obtain crucial information that can better guide the design and building of future cars.

Weekend Roundup 10/08/16

This weekend saw Longhorn Racing back in the garage as many of the subteams continued work that had been started during the past few weeks.

Part of the engine team was once again working on crafting a more efficient wiring harness.  Having started it two weeks ago, much of it has already been completed, meaning that this weekend allowed the team to focus on the wiring for all of the electronic components on the dashboard.  The rest of the engine team recruited several helpers from across various subteams to remove the engine from the 2015 car and hook it up to the dyno.

In addition, the chassis subteam has been tirelessly working on putting the frame together.  This weekend involved cutting tubes for the frame and continuing to weld the front half of the frame.  As that was taking place, other members of the team were looking toward the suspension.  Several people were in the machine shop manufacturing bearing holders for the suspension points, a task that kept them busy with 24 bearing holders to complete.

The aero team, too, had been hard at work.  This weekend, they were doing prep work on the seat in order to create a negative female mold.  They hope to use this to lay up carbon next week.


Finally, it was another busy weekend for the new recruits.  A design had been chosen and modified from their competition to create the most effective shifter/clutch handle assembly, and they were ready to move onto the next step.  This meant actually working in the machine shop to build it themselves, thereby honing their machining skills while also getting a feeling for the entire process of creating a part for the car in order to prepare them for future work on the team.  

Weekend Roundup - 10/01/16

This weekend, Longhorn Racing was pleased to be invited to UT Arlington's 2nd annual fall autocross event.  A few members of the team packed up the 2016 car and made the drive to Arlington with enough time for a track walk before the 9am drivers' meeting.

On-track action started at around 10, and we made sure that we were one of the first of the seven teams to get running.  It wasn't an easy start; while unloading the trailer, we found that some fluid had spilled during travel and had coated our tires.  That, combined with cooler track conditions, made for a slippery first run by Deepak.  Thankfully, as the day - and our tires - warmed up, we were able to find more grip.

The team faced a few more challenges along the way, especially in the morning.  There was a difficulty starting the engine without jumping it, and keeping it from stalling proved a tough task, but the team persevered, and the issue was nearly non-existent by the time the lunch break ended. 

After lunch, the track layout changed.  It was considerably longer and involved a series of more complicated turns.  However, all of our drivers who tried out the new circuit loved it; everyone finished their run with a huge smile on their face, eager to get back out there and try it again.

The team was able to run until 3:30 in the afternoon, when we discovered that our tires were nearly worn through.  With no spares in the trailer, we decided to pack up and call it a day.


Overall, we ran over 40 laps split between five different drivers and were able to end the day by choice, not due to a significant mechanical issue with the car.  It was a hugely successful event for the whole team and provided a great opportunity for our drivers to get more experience behind the wheel, see how the car is running in order to find ways to improve it, and chat with other teams about their progress.